In 1923 with aim of conducting scientific research the Azerbaijan Society for Scientific Research and Studies was established in Baku by initiative of Nariman Narimanov. This Society became the leading scientific research organization in Azerbaijan. In its early time, Society had History-Ethnography, Economy and Nature sciences sections. In 1925 Turkish Research section attached to the History-Ethnography section was established. With aim of conducting research and studies in various fields of science the commissions and sub-commissions on history, historical-literary studies, ethnography, philology, lexicography, law, industry, Caspian Sea studies, fine arts, theatre, music and others were organized.
By decree of the Council of the People’s Commissars of the USSR dated January 23, 1945 the Azerbaijan Affiliate Branch was transformed into Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences. At that time the Academy was comprised of 4 sections, 16 Scientific Research Institutes, Scientific Research Departments, 3 museums, Central Scientific Library, Scientific Bases in Nakhchivan, Ganja, Khankendi and Guba. Within the same year. On March 31, 1945 at the General Meeting of the Academy M.Mirgasimov was elected as the President of the Academy.By order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev dated January 12, 2004 Encyclopedia has been assigned to ANAS and pursuant to another order dated May 5, 2004, "Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia" Scientific Centre was established.
Currenlty, more than 10 thousand employees, including 4939 scientific workers, 560 doctors, and 2046 doctors of philosophy operate in Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. There are 74 active and 119 corresponding members in ANAS.ANAS gets in touch with foreign organizations, holds exchange of view to the foreign scientists on the modern problems of science and scientific organization.Scientists of the academy deliver lectures in the international scientific congresses and symposia on urgent roblems of science and technology. International scientific meetings and conferences are held periodically by organization and initiative of ANAS. 604 book s and 4208 papers (2427 papers on the journals with impact factor) were published by academy scientists.
ANAS is a member of many prestigious international scientific organizations, its employees conduct researches via leading scientific organizations of CIS countries, USA, Japan, Israel, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Germany, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran and other countries within the framework of the joint program, attend the staff trainings and data exchanges.By the Heydar Aliyev's decree dated January 4, 2003, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences was charged the status of a public authority implementing scientific and technical policy of the state. Its charter was given state's charter document, and its president was assigned the member of supreme executive power. Thus, there was a legal basis for the development of ANAS, expanded the scope of the academy, increased powers and governmental responsible tasks were put before.