Baku State University is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. Established in 1919 by the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the University started with faculties of history and philology; physics and mathematics; law and medicine with an initial enrollment of 1094.The first rector of BSU was V.I.Razumovsky, a former professor of surgery at Kazan University.
Baku State University is known as a leader of educational institutions, has a rich history and today it is known as one of the most famous scientific and educational centers of Azerbaijan Republic. The University has been the center of thought and national thinking. Azerbaijan’s famous politician, Heydar Aliyev and thousands of well-known scientists, intellectuals, and outstanding diplomats were graduated from this university.
Among the graduates of BSU were two former presidents of Azerbaijan, Abulfaz Elchibey and Heydar Aliyev. The former graduated from the Faculty of Arabic Language and Literature, while the latter, who dominated Azerbaijan's political life for over 30 years, from the Faculty of History. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Lev Landau studied at BSU between 1922 and 1924.BSU is the only university from Azerbaijan Republic ranked by international ranking organizations, such as University Ranking by Academic Performance and currently ranks at 1872 in the University Ranking by Academic Performance.
BSU was established on September 1, 1919 by the decision of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In its first year, the university had two faculties — Faculty of Philology and the Medical Faculty — and an enrollment of 1094 students.Among the leading professors in 1920-40 were Azerbaijani writer Abdurrahim bek Haqverdiyev, Orientalist Professor P.K. Juze, Professor A.O. Makovelski, Professor A.O. Mishel and other scholars. During that period the administration of the university invited to Baku such teachers as N.Y. Marr, V.V. Bartold, the academician of the Eastern Science Academy Fuad bek Kuprulluzade.
In 1930 the university was liquidated according to the decision made by Council of the People’s Commissar on reorganization. The High Pedagogical Institute was created. Only in 1943 the state university resumed its activity and very soon became the republic’s scientific-pedagogical center. Despite the great shortage of university teachers because most of teachers went to the Second World War, the university managed to keep its leading position. In 1945 the teachers took an active part in founding the Azerbaijan Academy of Science. Most of the republic's universities — such as Azerbaijan Medical University, Azerbaijan University of Economy, Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University and others — were founded on the basis of Baku State University.